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United States v. Adejumo

United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit

November 25, 2014

United States of America, Plaintiff - Appellee
v.
Adetokunbo Olubunmi Adejumo, also known as Malik, also known as D, also known as Tods, also known as Tokunbo, also known as T, Defendant - Appellant; United States of America, Plaintiff - Appellee
v.
Julian Okeayainneh, also known as Julius Inneh, also known as Julian Nosa Inneh, also known as J.J., also known as Julian Okeaya-Inneh, Defendant - Appellant; United States of America, Plaintiff - Appellee
v.
Olugbenga Temidago Adeniran, also known as Dennis Lok, also known as Dayo Olugbega, also known as Andre T. Andeiran, also known as Andeniran T. Dayo, also known as Oluwafemi Olarewaju Osibodu, also known as Dayo, also known as Dre, also known as Olugbenga Temidayo Adeniran, Defendant - Appellant

Submitted November 19, 2013.

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Appeal from United States District Court for the District of Minnesota - St. Paul.

For United States of America, Plaintiff - Appellee (12-2986): Ann Anaya, Assistant U.S. Attorney, James Lackner, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, Saint Paul, MN; Jeffrey S. Paulsen, Assistant U.S. Attorney, Lolita A. Velazquez-Aguilu, Assistant U.S. Attorney, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, District of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Adetokunbo Olubunmi Adejumo, also known as Malik, also known as D, also known as Tods, also known as Tokunbo, also known as T, Defendant - Appellant (12-2986), Pro se, Rochester, MN.

For Adetokunbo Olubunmi Adejumo, also known as Malik, also known as D, also known as Tods, also known as Tokunbo, also known as T, Defendant - Appellant (12-2986): Jordan S. Kushner, Minneapolis, MN.

For United States of America, Plaintiff - Appellee (12-3009, 12-3010): Ann Anaya, Assistant U.S. Attorney, James Lackner, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, Saint Paul, MN; Jeffrey S. Paulsen, Lolita A. Velazquez-Aguilu, Assistant U.S. Attorney, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, District of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

For Julian Okeayainneh, also known as Julius Inneh, also known as Julian Nosa Inneh, also known as J.J., also known as Julian Okeaya-Inneh, Defendant - Appellant (12-3009): Jennifer Marie Macaulay, MACAULAY LAW OFFICES, Saint Paul, MN.

Julian Okeayainneh, also known as Julius Inneh, also known as Julian Nosa Inneh, also known as J.J., also known as Julian Okeaya-Inneh, Defendant - Appellant (12-3009), Pro se, Big Spring, TX.

Olugbenga Temidago Adeniran, also known as Dennis Lok, also known as Dayo Olugbega, also known as Andre T. Andeiran, also known as Andeniran T. Dayo, also known as Oluwafemi Olarewaju Osibodu, also known as Dayo, also known as Dre, also known as Olugbenga Temidayo Adeniran, Defendant - Appellant (12-3010), Pro se, Loretto, PA.

For Olugbenga Temidago Adeniran, also known as Dennis Lok, also known as Dayo Olugbega, also known as Andre T. Andeiran, also known as Andeniran T. Dayo, also known as Oluwafemi Olarewaju Osibodu, also known as Dayo, also known as Dre, also known as Olugbenga Temidayo Adeniran, Defendant - Appellant (12-3010): Sarah M. MacGillis, MACGILLIS LAW, P.A., Minneapolis, MN.

Before RILEY, Chief Judge, MELLOY and KELLY, Circuit Judges.

OPINION

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KELLY, Circuit Judge.

On March 8, 2011, Adetokunbo Adejumo, Julian Okeayainneh, Olugbenga Adeniran and nine others were charged in a 57-count indictment with conspiracy to commit bank fraud, as well as substantive counts of bank fraud, mail- and wire fraud, identity theft, money laundering, and trafficking in false authentication features. Okeayainneh and Adeniran, along with two others, proceeded to trial.[1] After an 11-day trial, Okeayainneh was convicted of conspiracy to commit bank fraud and 25 substantive fraud-related counts. He was acquitted on one count of aiding and abetting aggravated identity theft. Adeniran was convicted of conspiracy to commit bank fraud and 8 substantive fraud-related counts. Adejumo pleaded guilty to one count of bank fraud and one count of aggravated identity theft. Okeayainneh and Adeniran appeal their convictions and sentences. Adejumo appeals his sentence. After careful review of the record and of all issues raised on appeal, we affirm in part, reverse in part, and remand for further proceedings.

I. Background

" We present the facts in a light most favorable to the verdicts, drawing all reasonable inferences from the evidence that support the jury's verdicts." United States v. Ramon-Rodriguez, 492 F.3d 930, 934 (8th Cir. 2007). In 2009, various federal and state agencies that had been independently investigating fraud in the Minneapolis metro area joined forces in a massive criminal investigation nicknamed Operation Starburst. The investigation led to the indictment of more than forty people on charges of bank fraud and aggravated identity theft, most of whom resided in Minnesota. Participants in the scheme used stolen identity information to create counterfeit identifications for use in committing bank fraud. The bank fraud took two main forms. In one form, counterfeit identification documents were used to open accounts at various federally insured banks, which were then used as conduits for cashing stolen or counterfeit checks. The bulk of these proceeds went to Okeayainneh and co-conspirator Olidipo Coker.[2] In its other form, the bank fraud involved stolen credit cards that were used to purchase gift cards or obtain cash advances.

On January 7, 2010, Adeniran came to the attention of Officer Joel Moore, an Edina, Minnesota, police officer who was patrolling the parking lot of Southdale Center in Edina. Officer Moore testified at trial he observed an idling parked vehicle with two men inside. One of the men was Coker. A third man entered and then quickly exited the vehicle; he was subsequently identified as Adeniran. After contacting mall security, Officer Moore determined that Adeniran had purchased three $500 gift cards from the Southdale Center customer-service kiosk using a stolen credit card. Adeniran was arrested. The vehicle and the other men were searched, but Coker and the other man were allowed to leave. The stolen credit card Adeniran had used was not recovered from him.

At the time of his arrest, Adeniran had identification information for at least three additional people on his person, including dates of birth, social security numbers, addresses, and credit-card numbers. While in custody, Adeniran swallowed a second piece of paper containing victim

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information. From jail, Adeniran called Coker, Adejumo, and others. The phone calls were recorded. In them, he talked about the fraud he had committed and his destruction of evidence; he also attempted to find someone to tender bail.

After Adeniran's arrest, investigators determined he had committed similar frauds around the same time. They learned that in November and December 2009, Adeniran had taken out cash advances at U.S. Bank and TCF Bank and purchased gift cards at a customer-service booth at the Mall of America, each time using a stolen credit card. On May 20, 2010, Adeniran pleaded guilty in Minnesota state court to identity theft for using the fake credit card at Southdale Center.

On November 3, 2010, Angela Grigsby was arrested in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, when she tried to withdraw money from a fraudulent bank account she had opened at Coker's direction. Grigsby provided investigators information that allowed law enforcement to obtain a search warrant for a storage locker in California Okeayainneh had rented under a false name since 2006.

On December 17, 2010, law enforcement executed the search warrant for Okeayainneh's storage locker. The locker contained stolen and counterfeit checks with a face value of over $18 million. It also contained blank check stock, photographs of co-conspirators--including Adeniran--and documents related to credit-card fraud against Chase Bank. The locker also held 500 credit cards in the names of various people and equipment for manufacturing fraudulent credit cards. In total, agents found forms of identification for 8700 different people in the storage locker. Okeayainneh arrived during the execution of the search warrant. Although he initially told law enforcement the locker was not his, he had the key to the locker in ...


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