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Frost v. City of Sioux City

United States District Court, N.D. Iowa, Western Division

September 18, 2017

JENNIFER FROST et al., Plaintiffs,
v.
CITY OF SIOUX CITY, IOWA et al., Defendants.

          ORDER

          LINDA R. READE, JUDGE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT.

         TABLE OF CONTENTS

         I. INTRODUCTION ....................................... 2

         II. PROCEDURAL HISTORY ................................. 2

         III. SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION .......................... 3

         IV. STANDARD OF REVIEW ................................. 3

         V. FACTUAL BACKGROUND ................................ 4

         A. The Ordinance ..................................... 4

         B. Plaintiffs ......................................... 6

         1. Kali Myers ................................... 6

         2. Jennifer Frost ................................. 7

         3. Jane Doe .................................... 7

         C. Plaintiffs' Claims ................................... 7

         VI. ANALYSIS ............................................ 8

         A. Standing of Plaintiffs ................................8

         1. Parties' arguments ..............................8

         2. Applicable law .................................8

         3. Injury in fact .................................9

         a. Subject to ordinance ........................ 9

         b. Dogs are property ......................... 11

         4. Favorably redress the injury ....................... 13

         5. Ripeness ................................... 14

         6. Standing established ............................ 15

         B. Procedural Due Process Claim Standing ................... 15

         C. Mootness of Kali Myers' Claims ........................ 16

         D. Failure to State a Claim for Which Relief Can Be Granted ....... 17

         1. Substantive due process .......................... 17

         a. Applicable law ........................... 17

         b. Analysis ............................... 18

         2. Equal protection .............................. 20

         3. Vagueness .................................. 21

         a. Parties' arguments ........................ 21

         b. Applicable law ........................... 21

         c. Analysis ............................... 22

         E. Abstention ....................................... 23

         1. Parties' arguments ............................. 23

         2. Applicable law ................................ 24

         3. Analysis .................................... 24

         VII. CONCLUSION ........................................ 25

         I. INTRODUCTION

         The matter before the court is Defendants City of Sioux City, Iowa (“City”), Robert Padmore and Cindy Rarrat's “Motion to Dismiss and Motion to Abstain” (“Motion”) (docket no. 23).

         II. PROCEDURAL HISTORY

         On December 2, 2016, Plaintiffs filed an Amended Complaint (docket no. 18) asserting that the City had violated their rights under the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On December 30, 2016, Defendants filed the Motion. On January 13, 2017, Plaintiffs filed a Resistance (docket no. 26). Defendants have not filed a Reply and the time for doing so has passed. Defendants have requested oral argument, but the court finds that oral argument is unnecessary. The Motion is fully submitted and ready for decision.

         III. SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION

         The court has original jurisdiction over Plaintiffs' claims because they arise under the United States Constitution. See 28 U.S.C. § 1331 (“The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising ...


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